13.0 Specialized Units

13.1 HQ Units

HQs are special combat units that can distribute supplies, rebuild units, and perform engineering tasks. HQs are 1 RE in size, regardless of what is on the unit designation.

13.1a HQs and Modes. The Combat Mode side of an HQ has the greater throw range. DG Mode (5.10e ) does not affect an HQ’s special functions (13.1b ). An HQ’s defense strength is determined by mode (per 13.1c ). An HQ in Strat Mode cannot throw supply (5.8b ).

Design Note: Combat Mode represents an HQ having taken up residence; Move Mode shows an HQ with a more mobile status. When in Move Mode, the extra trucks of the HQ are considered to be shuttling around mechanics and bakers instead of supplies.

13.1b HQ Special Functions.

  • An HQ can “throw” SP and trace supply to combat units within its throw range (12.3b ).
  • An HQ can rebuild units (13.5a ).
  • An Engineer-Capable HQ (13.8a ) can perform special functions such as bridging, detrainable creation, and construction.

13.1c HQs and Combat. HQs have some ratings that are not printed on the counters. Their Action Rating is 0. In Combat Mode, they have a parenthesized (defensive-only) strength of 5, and in Move Mode this is reduced to 1.

HQs need supply like any other combat unit. They must change to Move Mode when forced to retreat.

13.1d Special HQs. Games can have HQs of multiple nationalities and/or command levels. HQs are normally able to throw supply to all friendly ground units, without regard to historical chain of command, but there may be limita- tions in specific games. One exception is series-wide: Divisional HQs can only provide supply to their own division’s units or to independent units (defined in 3.2f ) of the same nationality.

13.2 Transport Points

Transport Points move SPs across the map. Specialized Combats involving these are covered in 9.14c.

13.2a Sequencing Transport/Supply. A Transport Point can move, pause to use some of its load, and then continue moving. While “pausing” the carried SP can be used to pay for all kinds of fueling and construction/repair. There are two important restrictions: the Transport Point must finish moving before another unit is moved, and upcoming combat/ barrage costs can never be pre-paid in this fashion. SP need not be unloaded from a Transport Point before being used.

13.2b Transport Points and Supply. Transport Points never need fuel and are never Out of Supply.

13.2c Mechanical Handling. Transport Points can carry up to their size in SP. Transport Points can combine and divide within counter-mix limits. Dividing or combining does not cost MP, can only be done in the friendly Movement Phase and only if all of the involved Transport Points are in one hex. The combined/divided Transport Points can continue to move, but must conform to the limitation imposed by 6.1f (but see 12.7e and 12.7f for some liberties given to Extenders). Different types of Transport Points can never be combined into a single counter, and this restriction includes Organic Trucks, which cannot combine with or divide into regular Trucks. (Exception: Unit Consolidation can be used to convert a regular Truck into an Organic Truck, per 13.9

13.2d Mode Restrictions. Transport Points are in Move Mode at all times (never Combat, Strat, Reserve, DG, or Exploit). (Exception: Organic Trucks can enter Reserve Mode, per 13.2g.)

13.2e A Transport Point can be shipped by sea or rail, but not by air. (Exception: Mules, found in some games, can be shipped via Air Transport.) The shipping cost is always equal to the size of the Transport Point, which can be transported while loaded with SP for the same shipping cost.

13.2f Loading and Unloading. Place loaded SP under the Transport Points carrying them, and unloaded SP above any Transport Points in the stack. A Transport Point cannot be loaded via direct-draw or via thrown SP—it must be in the same hex as the dump. Note SP can (in effect) be unloaded by direct- draw as its load is used by nearby units and HQs.

Loading Requirements: A Transport Point can load in any hex.

Unloading Requirements: A Transport Point can only unload in a hex which contains a friendly combat unit, port, air base, or existing unloaded supply dump.

Costs: A Transport Point pays 10% of its printed MA to load/unload any number of SP in a hex. Round the cost normally (so a truck with 45 MA must pay 5 MP to load or unload SP).

13.2g Organic Trucks.

A multi-unit formation sometimes is given special, attached Transport Points. An Organic Truck is handled like other Transport Points, with several exceptions. Organic Trucks…

  • A) can never unload their SP on the map,
  • B) only allow units of the same multi-unit formation to draw their SP,
  • C) can never be combined to form Extenders,
  • D) can be put into Reserve Mode (if their hex gets a DG result, remove the Reserve marker),
  • E) can tag along with other retreating combat units in their stack (but cannot retreat alone),
  • F) convert when captured into regular Transport Points, and
  • G) can withhold combat supply (see 12.10a).

Players can use HQs to throw supply from Organic Trucks to units of that formation.

13.2h Full Notation. Some games have Transport Points that have an “F” in a yellow box on one side and no such notation on the back. The “F” denotes that the Transport Point is full, while the other side shows it is empty (use the empty side plus some tokens for a partially loaded Transport Point).

13.2i Transport Points that are captured (see 9.14c) in the Movement Phase can move immediately. If captured in any other phase, no movement is allowed until the capturing side’s next Move- ment Phase.

13.3 Railroads

Railroads are vital for the movement of reinforcements and SP, and are often integral to trace supply. There are usually two types of railroad hexes, multi-track and single-track. Some games also have tracks of differing gauges (see 13.3f).

13.3a Combat units, Transport Points, and SP can be moved using Rail Cap (13.3b). These are the only rail cargo allowed—never aircraft, ships, hedge- hogs, etc. See 4.7 for the Transportation Equivalents of various cargo. Each Rail Cap point can transport one SP or RE any distance by rail movement. There are two possible modifications:

  • If cargo is moved along a path that includes one or more Trainbusting zones, double the Rail Cap cost.
  • If cargo is moved along a path that is entirely multi-track rail hexes, halve the normal Rail Cap cost.

13.3b Rail Cap is available every turn at levels specified by the scenario rules. It cannot be “saved” for use in another Movement Phase. Rail Cap can only be used in the Movement Phase (never during Reaction or Exploitation).

13.3c Detrainable Hexes. A railroad hex is detrainable if it meets all of these requirements:

  • It has a village, city (any size), port, or Engineer-Capable HQ (13.8a ).
  • It is under control (13.3h ).
  • It has a rail path free of enemy ZOC back to a supply source. Extender links can be part of this for trace supply, but not for moving cargo. Note EZOC cannot be negated to move cargo, but can to connect with a supply source.

13.3d Railheads.

Some games limit each side’s railroad usage to a certain gauge (or width) of track (13.3f ). Show a divide between gauges on the map (as in “German gauge runs to here”) with Railhead markers. (The flip-sides are marked Wrong Gauge to help mark complex junctions.) These markers are only moved by the conversion work of Rail Repair units— other ground units moving through rail hexes have no effect on the position of a Railhead.

Some games have only one gauge of railroad track. In these, players can use Railhead markers to show the forward extent of rail hexes under their control. (The initial extent of each side’s rail lines is sometimes given in the scenario rules, but keep in mind that 13.3h usually makes railheads unnecessary.)

13.3e Rail movement includes three steps: entrain, move, detrain. All three steps must be done in the same phase.

  • 1) To entrain, the cargo must be in a detrainable railroad hex (13.3c ) that is not in an enemy ZOC. A unit moving by rail must be in Move Mode, and can expend up to half its MA in the phase before entraining. Reinforcements and new SP can entrain “off-map” if their arrival hex contains a railroad (13.6b ).
  • 2) To move, the cargo follows a path of connected rail hexes that does not enter a hex with an enemy combat unit or ZOC. Rail hexes that are wrong gauge (13.3f ) or uncontrolled (13.3h ) cannot be used.
  • 3) To detrain, cargo must be in a detrainable railroad hex which is not in an enemy ZOC. No further movement is allowed by a unit after it detrains (per 4.7d).

Design Note: Rail capacity involves the marshaling of rolling stock and a lot of time spent loading and unloading. Rail movement is a strategic asset; it is much more efficient to move loads across long distances rather than in short hops.

13.3f Rail Conversion. In games with more than one rail gauge, a side can only use its rail capacity or supply line trace along rail lines of a particular gauge. Eligible Rail Repair units (13.3g ) are used to convert rail lines to the gauge appropriate to their side. Players keep track of the current extent of each rail gauge using Railhead markers.

  • A) Railroads cannot be converted in an enemy ZOC (no negation).
  • B) A Rail Repair unit can convert a rail hex simply by moving into it. Conversion does not cost SP or extra movement points.

13.3g Rail Repair Units. Rail Repair units are combat units that are used to convert railroad hexes. Several special rules govern them:

  • A) A Rail Repair unit can combine rail movement with conversion in the Movement Phase. (Exception: They cannot do so if the hexes being used for rail movement were converted in the current phase. No leapfrogging!)
  • B) Rail Repair units can move their full MA after using rail movement (less any movement done prior to entraining), and can use rail movement in Combat Mode.
  • C) Rail Repair units can entrain and detrain in any railroad hex (it need not be “detrainable”).
  • D) Rail Repair units can convert up to 4 hexes (or hexes equal their current MA, if less than 4) during the Movement Phase (not other phases). They must be in Combat Mode, or be in DG Mode and oriented toward Combat Mode (per 5.10e).

Play Note: Conversion is not restricted to merely pushing forward the railhead marking where standard and wide gauges meet; Rail Repair units can, for example, use Strat Mode to get ahead of the normal re-gauging to start working on a forward section of track. “No leapfrogging” is a narrow restriction on not having a second repair unit use rail movement on newly converted track to extend the Railhead.

13.3h Railroad Control. Players can only trace “rail paths” (13.3c ) into or through detrainable hexes they control. Initial control is based on the front line (use common sense). Control changes when an enemy combat unit enters the hex, or when the hex is now on the enemy side of the front line (this needs to be clearly the case; when there is any doubt do not change control).

Note that gauge, enemy units, and ZOC will further limit whether a rail path can actually be used for trace supply or rail transport.

Play Note: This supersedes all previous game-specific Railroad Control rules. There is no longer a need to move units through every rail hex — control of detrainable hexes is now the sole concern.

13.4 Artillery Units

Artillery units attack targets within range using Barrage. Barrage Strength is shown in a yellow box (on the lower left of the counter); range is printed below the Action Rating. The Combat Mode side of an artillery unit is the one with the greater Barrage Strength. Artillery units can move and fire in the same phase.

See 10.0for barrage rules.

13.4a Artillery in Reserve or Strat Mode cannot barrage. Otherwise, artillery can barrage in any Barrage Segment in which they are eligible to act, given the needed supply is paid.

13.4b Artillery and Combat. Artillery units all have a parenthesized (defensive- only) strength of 1 in both Combat or Move Mode. This number is not printed on the counters.

13.5 Replacement Units

Players roll on their Variable Replacement Table during each of their Reinforcement Phases. Replacements (Repls) acquired by this roll are additions to the turn’s regular Reinforcements. Repls can be used as soon as they arrive or be saved for later. They come in two types: Equipment (Eq) and Personnel (Pax). These are used to rebuild lost steps or units. Repl counters are not intention- ally limited by the counter-mix, and as with SP both players share the same generic counters so must take care to remember who owns which.

Repls can never enter Combat Mode, but can enter all other modes. They are 1/4 RE for stacking. Repls are Attack- Capable and can be used to take combat or barrage losses. Repls are independent combat units and must be supplied and fueled normally.

13.5a Replacing Losses. A Repl used to replace losses must be in Move Mode. Rebuilding costs vary by unit type and size, and are summarized on each game’s Rebuild Table. There are two general kinds of rebuild possible during every Reinforcement Phase.

  • 1) To rebuild a unit in the Dead Pile, the required Repls must be in a single hex at or within 2 hexes of a friendly HQ. The HQ must be in Combat Mode, or else be in DG Mode and oriented toward Combat Mode (per 5.10e). The hex may not be in an enemy ZOC (4.5a ). Remove the required Repls and put the rebuilt unit in the hex.
  • 2) To rebuild an on-map unit that has taken step losses, follow the above procedure. In addition, the unit being rebuilt must be stacked with the Repls being used.

13.5b A reduced or eliminated multi- step unit can have any number of steps rebuilt in a turn (given required Repls). Its supply status and mode have no effect on rebuilding. Rebuilding does not cost MP; place a newly-rebuilt unit in any voluntary mode. Generally, only units in the Dead Pile and on-map reduced units can be rebuilt. Generics like Breakdown units cannot usually be rebuilt (they are returned to the pool when destroyed).

Play Note: We have found it wise to set up a “training detachment” at a rear area base. Use a “not-so-good” HQ for this, and station incoming Repls adjacent to it. This simplifies the problem of having to hunt down Repls when you need them.

13.5c No-Rebuild Units. Units with a Yellow dot behind their AR cannot be rebuilt and are removed permanently when destroyed.

13.5d One Repl for Two Units. Some very small units (which are listed on the Rebuild Table) can be rebuilt in pairs for only one Repl. If only one such unit is available in the Dead Pile, one Repl must still be expended.

13.5e Truck Rebuilds. Trucks (Organic or regular) can be rebuilt at a cost of 1x Eq per truck. Only trucks that have been destroyed (or captured) by enemy action can be rebuilt in this way, so the player can never have more trucks in play than the scenario provides him. Other Transport Point types (such as wagons and mules) cannot be rebuilt in this way.

13.5f Air Replacements. Some games have tables that provide direct aircraft step replacement. In games with no such result available, players can use Eq to replace air losses. Each Eq can rebuild two aircraft steps. Expend the Eq at an HQ and follow the normal rules with this addition to 13.5a: Air units can be rebuilt at any friendly air base (it need not be near the HQ) and arrive Active from the Dead Pile.

  • An aircraft can be rebuilt regardless of flight conditions.
  • An Eq cannot be “partially” used to rebuild air units (13.5d ).

13.6 Reinforcements

Reinforcements are new units entering the game via the Arrival Chart or the Variable Reinforcement Table. They are placed in their entry hexes during the friendly Reinforcement Phase. The player cannot delay the entry of reinforcements, so “forgotten” units never arrive unless your opponent is very nice. Reinforcing aircraft arrive Active on any friendly Air Base.

13.6a Placement of reinforcements at a port (which cannot be in an enemy ZOC) is limited to its current capacity. Ground units can be overstacked when placed; aircraft arrivals must conform to normal stacking rules (14.2a and 18.2a).

13.6b Reinforcements can enter in any voluntary mode. They can be placed in hexes in an enemy ZOC (but note the Port restriction in 13.6a), and can arrive by rail (ignoring the usual “entraining” requirements of 13.3e). If a map-edge arrival hex is blocked by enemy units, the reinforcements can be placed in the nearest unblocked map-edge hex.

13.6c Organic Trucks arrive loaded. Other Transport Points arrive loaded only if SP are arriving at the same location that turn.

13.7 Formation Markers

Each multi-unit formation has a marker that can be used to show the location of one or more of the formation’s units. Remove the actual units from the map, and keep them anywhere convenient. This helps to reduce some of the map’s counter density and tall stacks.

Unless using option 13.7b, players should take pains not to use these markers to “hide” formations from one another.

Usage notes:

  • A) At least one of the Formation’s units must be stacked with the marker or the marker cannot be on the map (except as a reminder of Fueling). So “empties” cannot be used as dummy formations.
  • B) A Formation marker can only be used to represent a stack of that formation’s units. The units move and fight normally; the marker just shows their location. Units can freely move into the marker (and for convenience be kept off the map), or from the marker be put back on the map, at no additional MP cost. Eligible units that stack with a Formation marker are not required to enter it (and be pulled off the map).
  • C) Units represented by a Formation marker can be in different modes and supply states. The required markers can be put off-map with the units or on-map in the Formation marker’s hex (whichever is easiest). If some units in a hex are in the same mode as some units in the Formation marker, a single marker can usually be used for all. Just remember to think of the off-map units as stacked where the Formation marker is located.
  • D) Formation markers have regular and fueled sides. Players must use the fueled side when the “forma- tion” method of fuel cost is paid (see 12.5c).

13.7a Supply Concerns. Combat units in a multi-unit formation must receive trace and fuel supply from the same HQ or the same direct-draw source. If this is not possible:

  • For trace supply, one part of the formation can trace “for free” while the rest must “eat SP” or become Out of Supply (per 12.6d).
  • For fueling, part of the formation can use the “formation” method, but the remainder will need to use the “single-unit” method. See 12.5c.

13.7b Fog of War Option. If players agree, the Formation markers can be used to heighten the fog of war. Players are allowed to “hide” a tank corps or panzer division by putting its Formation marker under other combat units in a stack. Any such trickery must conform to 4.8b and 4.9a—the Formation needs to be on top if it contains the stack’s only ground units with a ZOC (and one of its units needs to be revealed).

13.8 Engineer Functions

HQs and Engineers are the only units that can perform engineer functions (bridging, construction, and creation of detrainable hexes). Related unit types— such as Rail Repair, Assault Engineers, Pioneers, and Para/Glider Engineers— cannot perform the tasks listed in this section.

13.8a Engineer-Capable. For it to be considered Engineer-Capable, an HQ or Engineer must be in Combat Mode, or else be in DG Mode and oriented toward Combat Mode (per 5.10e).

13.8b Bridging. When adjacent to a Major River, an Engineer-Capable unit automatically reduces the MP cost of Major River hexsides to that of Minor River hexsides. Likewise, an Engineer- Capable unit downgrades Minor River hexsides to “no additional cost.” There is no SP cost. Only friendly units moving into or out of the Engineer-Capable unit’s hex benefit from these reduced movement costs. Apply bridging effects to frozen rivers as appropriate.

Attacking units cannot use the bridging function to cross a hexside to overrun across a river. Bridging has no effect on combat terrain modifiers, but can enable an attack where none would be possible without a bridge.

Bridging will disappear the instant a unit is no longer Engineer-Capable. (Exception: An Engineer-Capable unit can use its own bridge to leave the hex after losing its Engineer-Capable status by changing mode or orientation.)

13.8c Detrainable Creation. This is a special ability of HQ units only, not other engineers. When an Engineer-Capable HQ occupies a functioning railroad hex it automatically makes the hex detrainable (13.3c ). There is no SP cost.

This special detrainable status disappears the instant a mode change makes the HQ no longer Engineer-Capable. (Exception: An Engineer-Capable HQ can entrain itself before switching to Move Mode.)

13.8d Construction. In the Movement Phase (only), an Engineer-Capable unit can perform construction within a 2-hex radius (enemy ZOC are ignored, and terrain affects this path as if using Leg MP). Tasks are build/improve/reduce an Air Base (15.3 ) or Hedgehog (16.0b ), and repair/damage a Port (19.0d ). An Engineer-Capable unit cannot move in the phase it performs construction.

Construction limits and notes:

  • An Engineer-Capable unit can only perform construction in a single hex, and can only perform one type of construction.
  • All of the build/improve/repair tasks have an SP cost. The reduce/damage tasks are free of cost.
  • Construction is immediate, so for instance a new airfield can be used in the same phase it is built.

Design Note: A large portion of engineer capability is tied to HQ units. In real life, these engineers typically spend most of their time doing their assigned tasks. In games, all too frequently, they end up as poor excuses for infantry units and their original task is forgotten. The idea here is to prevent such misuse by eliminating most non-combat engineer units from the counter-mix.

13.9 Unit Consolidation

A player can combine crippled formations during his Reinforcement Phase. Units may be consolidated when adjacent to enemy units and when Out of Supply. Ground units being exchanged/combined must be identical on both sides of the counter, and a unit involved in a consolidation cannot have Low or Exhausted internal stocks, or be DG. There are four types of Consolidation:

  • 1) To consolidate multi-step units, the two units must be in the same hex (or off-map box). Remove one of the units and change the step losses on the remaining unit to reflect the steps added to it. No unit can be rebuilt beyond full strength in this manner—excess steps would be lost.
  • 2) To consolidate multi-unit formations, the player can swap any unit (including an Organic Truck) for the equivalent unit of a different multi-unit formation that is in the Dead Pile. Modes and markers stay the same, and SP loaded on an Organic Truck remain loaded (which does allow the supply to be passed to the other division).
  • 3) An independent unit (including regular Transport Points) can be made part of a multi-unit formation (similar to #2 above), but a unit from a multi-unit formation can never be converted into an independent unit.
  • 4) Two reduced aircraft of the same type, values, and status (Active or Inactive) can combine into a full strength aircraft if they are in the same hex (or off-map box). This can be done during any phase (not just the Reinforcement Phase).