There are two kinds of supply: on-map supply (represented by SP and Token counters) and trace supply (which is abstracted). On-map supply is a type of non-combat unit primarily used to pay artillery barrage, combat supply, and fuel costs. Trace supply is used to determine whether combat units are “in supply” during their Supply Phase. SP can be used to provide trace supply when combat units do not have a valid supply line, but trace supply can never be substituted when SP are needed.
On-map supply is normally stockpiled in dumps set up behind the front lines. Units sometimes are close enough to “draw” supply directly from the dump, but more commonly supply is “thrown” to them by an HQ unit.
Trace supply is notional. Combat units must trace a path to a supply source, usually a port or a map edge hex. As with on-map supply, HQs are typically used to put the front lines in trace supply. Rail connections and Transport Point “Extenders” are often used to cover long distances back to a supply source.
Important Note: Only combat units require supply. Non-combat units, air units, and naval units never consume SP or need trace supply—their supply needs are not explicitly modeled (except for air bases, which require refit supply).
12.1 Supply Points
12.1a Mechanical Handling. Players can break down and add together SP in the same hex by “making change” with SP counters of equal value. Players can further break down SP to Tokens, which are the small change of logistical currency. One SP equals four Tokens or conversely, one Token equals 1/4 SP. Combine Tokens into SP when- ever possible to reduce stack clutter. The abbreviation used for Token is T, so the shorthand for two Tokens is 2T.
Note the graphic displayed on the SP differs from that on Tokens so that they are easy to tell apart, and the graphic on the Token counter does not imply that Tokens are only used for ammunition. SP and Tokens are identical aside from their denomination (a Token being a fractional part of an SP).
Example 1: A player must spend 1T to fuel a moving tank unit from a supply dump with a 1 SP counter. He flips the counter to its 3T side to pay for the fuel.
Example 2: In paying for a 2T barrage out of a 5 SP dump, the player first realizes that 2T is the same as 1/2 SP. The dump will expend 1/2 SP and have 4 1/2 SP remaining. He flips the 5 SP counter to its 4 SP side, and puts a 2T counter in the hex to add the 1/2 SP.
12.1b Supply Dumps. Any location containing Supply Points, whether on the ground or loaded on a Transport Point, is called a dump. SP do not have to be unloaded to be used.
12.1c Generic Supply Dumps.
Some supply counters have letter designations instead of the usual numbers. A player can use these to represent supply dumps of any size. Just place the marker on the map and record its number of SP on a scrap of paper. Aside from the paper record, these dumps are handled the same as any other SP in the game. Remove the marker if the dump is ever emptied.
12.1d Ownership of Supply Points. The generic SP counters are common to both players, so it is important that players keep track of who owns what. An SP belongs to (and can only be used by) the player who brought it onto the map unless it has been captured (see 9.14b).
12.2 Transportation of Supply
A player can move SP using Transport Points and his air, naval, and rail assets. The capabilities and limitations of each are in the rules sections governing each method (13.2, 13.3, 14.9, 14.10, 18.4, and 19.0).
12.2a Leapfrogging. A given SP can be moved by only one type of transport (air transport, naval shipping, rail cap, or Transport Point) in a single phase, and no SP can be loaded if it was unloaded previously in that same phase.
12.2b It is not a violation of the leapfrog rule if an SP is moved across the map and then used immediately.
12.3 On-Map Supply
Supply Points are used in various phases to fuel movement, supply combat, refit aircraft, resupply internal ammo stocks, pay for construction, and as a substitute for needed trace supply.
Important Note: Players use the same mechanics of direct draw and HQ-throw any time they need supply (for trace, fuel, combat, construction, restocking internals, or aircraft refit). Fuel is never required to draw, throw, or trace supply. (Exception: Per 18.5e, to draw from SP loaded on a Landing Craft a unit must be in a hex adjacent, and HQs are not allowed to “throw” supply drawn from a Landing Craft.)
12.3a Direct Draw. To draw supply, units must be within 5 MP of a dump, or a hex that is adjacent to the dump (12.3c). Needed supply can be drawn from one or more dumps within range. Always use Truck MPs when counting the path back to a dump. (Exception: for an HQ with a throw range that is Leg or Track, use that mobility type.) Count the MP just as if moving a unit (see 12.3d).
12.3b Throwing Via HQ. An HQ able to draw SP from a dump (per 12.3a) can then pass needed supply forward to the extent of its printed throw range.
An HQ’s throw range, in MP, appears on the counter. Color is used to indicate the throw range’s mobility type (3.1a). To throw supply, count a movement path using this throw range from the HQ to the unit needing supply, or a hex adjacent to the unit (12.3c). Count the MP to just as if moving a unit (see 12.3d).
- A) HQs can only throw supply that is used immediately. (To move a dump to a new location requires some form of transport.)
- B) HQs can throw to any number of friendly units (but specific games might impose restrictions).
- C) HQs in Strat Mode cannot throw supply.
- D) HQs cannot “re-throw” supply given to them by another HQ, but can use supply thrown to them for their own needs.
12.3c Adjacent Is Close Enough. The “adjacent to” provision of supply paths is very important: regardless of terrain (even if prohibited), it is assumed that the unit will be able to get its hands on supply that can reach an adjacent hex. This applies to all types of supply handling that use direct draw or HQ throw.
12.3d Supply Path Movement. Any kind of supply path (draw, throw, or trace) is counted as if moving a non- combat unit through the hexes of the supply path. These paths can be traced through enemy non-combat units, ships, and planes, but never through a hex containing an enemy combat unit. All of the movement restrictions contained in section 6.1 apply when counting out supply paths.
An un-negated enemy ZOC blocks all kinds of supply paths in or out of a hex that are being traced with Truck MP. Note that some HQs and Extenders use Leg MP or Track MP, and the supply paths of these are unaffected by ZOCs.
Always use “normal” terrain costs (the summer/clear variety) for supply paths, ignoring all temporary “bad” ground conditions such as mud and snow, as well as the extra cost of moving through a Trainbusting Zone. (Exception: A unit can use movement costs that are temporarily **reduced88 by weather.)
12.3e Holding Boxes and Supply. A unit in a holding box representing a specific hex draws supply as if it is in that hex on the map (since this type of holding box only exists to give large stacks some elbow room). A unit in a holding box representing an off-map location draws supply from within that holding box (which usually has infinite supply dumps). On-map units cannot draw supply from an off-map holding box.
12.4 Combat Supply
Direct Draw (12.3a) and Throwing Via HQ (12.3b) are used to receive and distribute combat supply (9.5). Units can use internal stocks only if on-map supply is unavailable. See 12.10.
- Attacker cost is 1T per attacking step. (Exception: in DAK, 2-step brigades cost 1T.)
- Defender cost is 2T per combat. (Exception: for 1 RE or less, cost is just 1T.)
Important Note: Units which do not have their full combat supply available cannot attack at all. Defenders always have the option to withhold combat supply and defend at half strength.
12.5 Fuel Supply
Direct Draw (12.3a) and Throwing via HQ (12.3b) are used to receive needed fuel supply.
12.5a Combat units using Truck MP or Tracked MP cannot expend any MP unless fuel costs are paid. Full fuel costs must be paid to move even one hex. (Exception: movement following ALT landings, 18.5h.) Fuel is never needed for other types of units or functions (such as Leg units, trucks, ships, aircraft, and supply draw/throw).
12.5b Combat units needing fuel to move do not need fuel to attack, defend, barrage, retreat, or advance after combat. Overrun requires the attacker to pay for fuel even if the stack begins movement adjacent to the defender.
According to the cases below, pay fuel costs in any phase a unit incurs them at the instant they are incurred.
- A) Formation Method. Pay 1 SP to fuel a multi-unit formation. This fuel lasts until the next Friendly Clean Up Phase. To mark this, flip the Formation marker (13.7) to its Fueled side. If all units of the formation needing fuel are not using the same HQ for supply- throw (or using the same dump for direct-draw), apply the single-unit method (below) to fuel units that cannot draw from the common source.
- B) HQ Method. Pay 1 SP to fuel an HQ itself plus all independent units within its throw range. This fuel lasts until the next Friendly Clean Up Phase. Mark this by placing a Fuel marker on top of the HQ. See 12.5e.
- C) Single-Unit Method. Pay 1T per unit that needs fuel. This method can be used by any unit, regardless of its size or steps, and whether it is independent, a multi-step unit, or part of a formation. This fuel lasts for the current phase only. There is usually no reason to mark this type of fuel.
12.5d The phasing player must remove Fuel markers from his HQs and flip his Formation markers to their non-fueled sides during his Clean Up Phase. (This sequence means that Fuel markers placed during the Reaction Phase, when releasing Reserves, give the best possible “miles per gallon.”)
12.5e An HQ can fuel all independent units (defined in 3.2f) in its throw range “for free” (avoiding the single-unit method’s 1T per unit per phase) once the cost of 12.5c(B) has been paid. The throw range is counted when each inde- pendent unit begins to move.
A fueled HQ is only allowed to throw fuel from a single location each phase. This affects a moving HQ, which must choose whether to throw fuel from its starting hex or its ending hex.
12.5f The placement of reinforcements doesn’t need fuel, but moving beyond the entry hex requires payment of fuel costs (if any)—reinforcements do not get “free fuel” on the turn of arrival.
12.5g Internal stocks *cannot be used for fuel costs.
Example: In his Reaction Phase, a player wants to move a panzer division and five independent Assault Gun battalions. The player pays 1 SP to fuel an HQ to run the non-divisionals (since the 1 SP is cheaper than the 5T he would have to spend for them individually). The panzer division has been pretty well mauled in earlier battles and has just one panzer battalion and one infantry regiment left. The player determines that he can afford to let the infantry walk (using their Leg MP in Combat Mode) and pays 1T for the panzer battalion. The total fuel cost is 5T (and it might have cost as much as 9T had he not been maximizing efficiency).
Play passes into the above player’s own turn. In his regular Player Turn some of the above decisions will affect play—both in the regular Movement Phase and in the Exploitation Phase. The HQ which was fueled for the Assault Guns is still fueled (and will be until the player’s Clean Up Phase) so all non-divisional units in range of that HQ (including other HQs and that HQ itself) can move during the Player Turn without additional costs. The panzer division’s panzer battalion cannot move without further payment, however, because the 1T expended only lasted for the phase in which it was spent. The Leg infantry is unaffected, as it can still walk. To move the panzer battalion about will require further fuel expenditures.
12.6 Trace Supply
Combat units need to check for trace supply during their Supply Phase. If unable to obtain trace supply or “eat off the map” (12.6c), the combat units are marked Out of Supply and must check for Attrition. In addition, units can use Breakout (12.8e) if unable to “make their trace” during the Breakout Segment.
Direct Draw (12.3a) and Throwing Via HQ (12.3b) are used to receive and distribute trace supply.
12.6a There are three kinds of Supply Sources:
- 1) Map-edge railroad hexes that allow Reinforcement entry, plus other supply sources mentioned in the game-specific rules, or
- 2) Detrainable hexes (see 13.3c), or
- 3) Hexes with an Extender (12.7) that connect to a detrainable hex or directly to a supply source.
12.6b An enemy ZOC in any type of Supply Source hex prevents trace supply from being obtained, but these can be negated per 4.5b.
12.6c Eating off the Map. Combat units that cannot “make their trace” to a Supply Source can “eat” SP to obtain trace supply. For every 1T spent, up to 2 RE (within draw or throw range of the dump) can be fed. Round all fractions up; for example, 6 1/2 RE would cost 4T.
Units can only “eat off the map” if no trace supply is available. See also 12.6e and 12.6f.
12.6d Combat units that can neither “make their trace” nor “eat off the map” are marked Out of Supply and roll for Attrition (see 12.8).
Play Note: Units are never forced to “eat off the map,” even when SP are available. At times, letting surrounded troops “starve” to save combat supply is a good gamble.
12.6e Strat Mode units are not allowed to “eat off the map” and must end their movement in hexes where trace supply is currently possible. An HQ in Strat Mode cannot throw supplies.
12.6f All combat units in a multi-unit formation should “make their trace” to the same HQ or the same direct-draw source. If this is not possible, then select part of the formation to trace “for free” while the rest must eat off the map or become Out of Supply (per 12.6d).
12.6g Ground units on a Landing Craft are always considered in trace supply.
12.6h Units making a planned air drop (14.10b) do not require trace supply on the turn they are dropped.
Extenders are used to help bridge gaps in trace supply. Five Transport Points of the same type (usually truck or wagon) in a hex can be converted into an appropriate “Extender” counter by expending half their MA (per 12.7d). Extenders cannot move (or be used for any other Transport Point purpose).
- Organic Trucks can never be used to create an Extender.
- If a game’s counter mix does not include Extenders (always on the back of 5-point Transport Points) they cannot be created at all.
12.7a The only purpose of Extenders is to create new locations from which trace supply can be drawn. (They never move SP, help move RR cargo, or increase draw/throw ranges.) Extenders can act as a trace supply…
- A) …source when it is linked to a detrainable hex or directly to a supply source.
- B) …connection between two sets of rail hexes, allowing hexes along the “forward”rail line to become detrainable if the “back” one leads to a supply source.
- C) …connection between a rail hex and a supply source, making hexes along the rail line detrainable.
12.7b Extenders have a range that is the maximum distance (in MP) back to the connected hex. The Extender is always posted at the “forward” end of this connection (the hex furthest from the ultimate supply source).
12.7c An Extender can link to other Extenders in a “daisy chain” to make longer connections.
12.7d Creating Extenders. Switching into an Extender costs a Transport Point half of its MA. Extenders cannot move unless they flip back to the Transport Points side of the counter, using half their MA to do so. A given Extender may be formed by only one type of Transport Point (e.g. truck or wagon, not both). A loaded Transport Point cannot convert into an Extender (it must first unload). An Extender cannot be created in a hex where it cannot connect to a trace supply source at that moment. Extenders that later have their trace cut can stay as Extenders, although they cease to function as such.
12.7e Transport Points forming into an Extender can come from different hexes, combining in a common hex (where each spends half of its MA).
12.7f After an Extender is switched back into Transport Points, the points can be moved separately to different hexes. They need not move as a stack.
12.7g Extenders can apply the “adjacent is good enough” rule, as in all other supply-related functions.
12.7h Extenders “collapse” when enemy combat units enter their hex, and can also do so voluntarily. See 9.14d.
Play Note: Garrison Extenders, or else.
12.8 Attrition & Out of Supply
12.8a In the Supply Phase, a friendly stack that cannot “make its trace” or “eat off the map” is marked Out of Supply and checked for Attrition. The marker remains until trace supply is regained in a subsequent friendly Supply Phase. Units marked Out of Supply must check for Attrition at the end of every friendly Supply Phase until back in supply.
12.8b Check a stack for Attrition by consulting the Attrition Table. Roll two dice, using the column for the highest Action Rating among the units marked Out of Supply, and counting only the steps in the hex that are Out of Supply. The table result is the number of steps the stack must lose. The owning player chooses how to inflict these losses on the Out of Supply units in the stack. There is no requirement to take the loss from the unit with the highest AR.
12.8c Fueling Procedures. When checking for Attrition, do not adjust a unit’s AR for being in DG Mode, but do adjust for Strat Mode (but this should never come up, given 12.6e).
12.8d Out of Supply Effects.
Units marked Out of Supply have no ZOC. If combat supply is available, such units attack and defend at half strength. Without combat supply, Out of Supply units cannot attack and defend at 1/4 strength. Given barrage supply, Out of Supply units can barrage normally. Units marked Out of Supply can move normally.
12.8e Breakout. During their Breakout Segment, any combat units (not non- combat units) that are currently out of trace supply (make a trace-check during this segment) and have a printed MA of at least 1 can attempt Breakout if they meet the following conditions:
- A) There must be a path of any length from the unit to a friendly unit in trace supply. That path must be free of enemy combat units and of terrain that is prohibited for movement (using the unit’s MA in Move Mode). This path for a Truck MP unit must also be free of un-negated EZOCs.
- B) The unit must be at or within 15 hexes of a friendly combat unit in trace supply (straight line distance, ignore enemy units/ZOCs.)
On the first turn a unit finds itself out of trace supply (not after it “eats off the map” or uses a special form of trace supply such as a Supply Cache or Tree Bark Soup), the above conditions are waived, the success chance (see below) is improved by a +1 DRM, and Transport Points are also eligible to Breakout (roll for each point separately).
Breakout is always voluntary.
Roll for each unit attempting Breakout:
- If the roll is 1-4, the unit fails. It is placed in the Dead Pile (and can be rebuilt normally).
- If the roll is 5-6, the unit succeeds. It is removed from the map, but will return to play as a Reinforcement. Roll again for each successful unit: it returns that number of turns in the future. A returning unit retains any step loss marker, but loses all other markers (Low ammo, DG, etc.).
See Change Notes for more on how to use this rule in older series games.
Play Note: Use the Turn Record Track as a reminder for when units return.
12.9 Specialty Supply Levels
12.9a Non-combat units (3.3) never require trace supply or fuel.
12.9b HQs need supply just like any other combat unit.
12.9c Air Bases need on-map supply (obtained via Direct Draw or Throwing Via HQ) to refit aircraft. Aside from this, aircraft do not require supply.
12.9d Ships do not require supply.
12.10 Internal Stocks
Internal stocks represent the ammo supplies that a unit can draw upon when needed SP are unavailable. They can be used only for combat supply (see 9.5b)—never for barrages, trace supply, fuel, etc. A unit’s Combat Strength is the same whether using internal stocks or on-map supply. Show usage of internal stocks individually, placing a Low or Exhausted marker under each unit.
12.10a Internal stocks can be used only when a unit cannot obtain (via direct draw or HQ throw) needed SP from on-map stocks. (Exception: internal stocks can be used if the only available dump is SP loaded on Organic Trucks.)
12.10b When a unit gets combat supply from its internal stocks, mark it Low. If the unit is already marked Low, flip the marker to Exhausted—which means that after this combat its internal stocks are empty.
12.10c A unit that is marked Low or Exhausted is still eligible to use regular combat supply. If regular combat supply is not available, a unit with an Exhausted marker cannot attack at all, and must defend without combat supply (at half strength, per 9.5a).
12.10d No unit can draw on another’s internal stocks, even when stacked.
12.10e Recovery. Units marked Low or Exhausted recover internal stocks in the player’s Supply Phase if SP are available (obtained via Direct Draw or Throwing Via HQ). Recovery from Low costs 2T per unit (or RE if a multi-step unit); recovery from Exhausted costs twice that amount.
- A) Units must recover internals if possible, and this recovery takes priority over using SP as a substitute for trace supply.
- B) All supply dumps from which a unit can draw or be thrown SP are subject to the required recovery of internals. (Exception: The SP loaded on Organic Trucks are free from the requirement to provide recovery for internals.)
- C) If some SP are available, but not enough to fully recover internals, expend whatever supply is avail- able. A single T would be wasted; 2T would recover one “Low” unit or improve an “Exhausted” unit to “Low” (or be wasted if the only recovering units are multi-step).
12.10f Out of Supply status does not affect internal stocks (or vice versa).
12.10g Internal stocks and SP can be mixed to pay combat supply. (Exception: A single counter—even one with multiple steps, such as a division—can use either internal stocks or on-map supply; such a unit cannot mix the two for itself.)
12.10h If a multi-step unit chooses to use internal stocks because there is not enough on-map supply available, the on-map supply must still be spent (it is wasted).
Example: 3 RE (three separate units) attempt an attack. The player has 1T of supply available. The 1T can be used to pay for one unit, and the others would be marked Low. If the same attack was done by a single multi-step unit, it would be marked Low and the 1T would be wasted.
12.11 Destruction and Capture
12.11a Blowing Dumps. All SP in a hex, both those loaded on Transport Points and those on the ground, can be blown if a player fears they may be captured by the enemy. A combat unit need not be present in the hex. This can only be done during the Movement Segments of his Movement, Reaction, and Exploitation Phases. A player can blow a given dump only once per phase, and can attempt to blow all or only some of the SP in a dump.
Roll one die on the Dump Blowing Table to determine the percentage of SP destroyed. Round losses to the nearest Token. Note Transport Points cannot be destroyed in this manner.
Example: A player attempts to blow 3 of the 4 SP in a dump. He obtains a 75% result. 3 x .75 = 2.35, so 2 SP and 1T are destroyed.
12.11b Capturing Dumps. When an Attack-Capable unit enters a hex with enemy SP and/or Transport Points, roll on the appropriate column(s) of the Capture Table. (Enemy combat units in the hex must of course be evicted before an attempt to capture can be made.) See 9.14b and 9.14c for complete details.
Example: Maximum Stretch of HQs