# 4.0 General Concepts

The terms used to describe classes of units have precise meanings that are important to understanding these rules. For instance, “ground units” describes a broader range of units than “combat units” (which are a subset of ground units), and “Attack-Capable units” are a further subdivision of combat units. Use of the word “units” by itself (not modified as in “independent units” or “DG Mode units”) refers collectively to all units—ground, naval, and air—when a narrower context is not obvious.

## 4.1 Rounding Rule

Players will often be required to round decimals to whole numbers. When the fractional part is less than .5, round down. When the fractional part is .5 or more, round up.

## 4.2 Fractions

Round the final odds in combat, but do not round fractional strengths prior to determining odds. Fractional barrage factors are combined and then rounded to determine the barrage column. Never round fractional Movement Allowances.

Design Note: Players should take note of the important effect of this rounding rule on odds calculation. In this series, a 15 to 6 attack rounds to 3:1.

Example: Three units attack with modified combat strengths of 2.5, 3.25, and 4 (for a total strength of 9.75) against the defender’s strength of 2. Combat odds would be figured as 4.875 to 1, which is rounded to 5:1.

## 4.3 Cumulative Effects

In all cases where a value is subject to multiple modifiers, the effects are cumulative. For instance, quarter the strength of a combat unit halved for terrain and halved for supply.

## 4.4 Attack-Capable Units

Combat units with printed Combat Strengths are Attack-Capable, unless the strength is parenthesized or the unit is in Strat Mode or Reserve Mode. A printed Combat Strength of zero still makes a unit Attack-Capable (9.14a).

4.4a Attacking units (in both combat and overrun) must be Attack-Capable.

4.4b Attack-Capable units in Combat Mode and not currently marked Out of Supply have a Zone of Control (4.5).

4.4c Ground movement into a hex with an enemy non-combat unit (a port, air base, supply dump, Transport Point, or hedgehog) requires an Attack-Capable unit. This may result in destruction or capture, per 9.14.

Player Note: Attack-Capable units are no longer required for movement into “empty” enemy villages or cities.

## 4.5 Zone of Control

Attack-Capable units in Combat Mode have a Zone of Control (ZOC) unless currently marked Out of Supply. Units in other modes do not have a ZOC. (Exception: Exploitation Mode, 5.9c.) A unit’s ZOC limits enemy actions in the six hexes adjacent to the unit. This is true regardless of the terrain in those hexes or the hexsides between them.

4.5a The following actions cannot be taken in an enemy ZOC. An action marked <Negation>, however, is allowed if the ZOC has been negated (4.5b); negation is not possible for the others.

• A) Truck Movement. <Negation> A unit with Truck MP (mobility types are explained in 3.1a that enters an enemy ZOC must either end its movement or else conduct an overrun. One overrun might lead to another, thus allowing the unit to continue through more than one ZOC. Note that units starting a phase in an enemy ZOC can exit that hex using Truck MP, and that movement using Leg or Track MP is unaffected by ZOCs.
• B) Supply Lines. <Negation> An enemy ZOC blocks all kinds of supply paths (e.g., draw, throw, Extenders) traced with Truck MP in or out of a hex. Note an HQ or Extender with Leg or Track mobility is unaffected by ZOCs.
• C) Rail Transport - Literal. Units using Rail Cap.
• D) Rail Transport - Trace Supply <Negation>
• E) Rail Conversion operations.
• F) Port Operations - Trace Supply. <Negation> Specific Game Note: In either edition of DAK, units do not negate EZOCs for Port Operations (F).
• G) Port Operations-Literal, Using Sea Cap.
• H) Aircraft Refit. <Negation>
• I) Reserve Mode. Units cannot enter Reserve Mode in an enemy ZOC (5.7c). Once in Reserve Mode, they can enter/exit ZOC normally.
• J) Strat Mode. Units cannot change to Strat Mode in an enemy ZOC (5.8a), nor can they ever enter a ZOC while in Strat Mode.
• K) Repl Rebuilds.

4.5b Negating ZOC. Per 4.5a, some ZOC effects can be negated. An enemy ZOC in a hex is negated if that hex contains a friendly combat unit at that moment and, further, the unit doing the negating will not spend MP later in the current phase. (It is allowed to leave the hex via actions such as advance after combat or Breakout, which do not require expenditure of MP.) The friendly combat unit doing the negation need not have a ZOC itself. Note that when a unit starts the phase in an enemy ZOC, negation is not needed to exit that hex.

Example: Aircraft refit can still be done even if a Combat Mode enemy unit is adjacent to the base, provided a friendly combat unit (of any mode) is in the hex.

4.5c ZOCs and Retreats. See 9.12e.

Design Note: The lack of ZOC effects on Leg and Track movement can cause anomalous events until a player masters the implications of this feature. Players need to think carefully about unit placement, both along the front lines and in the rear area!

## 4.6 Regimental Equivalents

The concept of Regimental Equivalents (RE) is used to figure the size of a unit (important for things like stacking and transport). Only ground combat units have RE sizes, as only they need them.

• Multi-step units have their RE size shown on the counter.
• Battalions are 1/2 RE.
• Repl units and company-sized units are 1/4 RE.
• All other sizes count as 1 RE. (There may be game-specific exceptions.)

A multi-step unit’s RE size is reduced by one for each step loss (9.11). All other combat units are 1 step for loss purposes, regardless of RE size. (Some games have exceptions to this rule.)

Design Note: The RE concept has its roots in the GDW Europa games.

## 4.7 Transportation Equivalents

Combat units, Transport Points, and SP can be transported by rail (13.3), air (14.9), Landing Craft (18.4), and abstract shipping (19.0f). A Transport Point (13.2) can only carry SP.

4.7a RE and SP are interchangeable transportation equivalents. One point of rail capacity can move either 1 SP or 1 RE (or a combination, such as 2T of supply and 1/2 RE of units).

4.7b If a unit’s printed MA in Move Mode is from 1 to 6 Leg MP, inclusive, its transportation equivalent is halved. For all other units, the transportation cost is the same as the RE size.

4.7c Transport Points can load (and carry) a number of SP equal to their point value. Transport Points can be carried by landing craft, rail, or shipping (but not by air). Count only the size of the Transport Points when figuring the transportation equivalent—whether loaded with SP or not, it always takes 1 point of capacity to ship 1 Transport Point.

4.7d Movement and Transport. A unit cannot be moved by more than one type of transport in a phase—for instance, a unit is not allowed to move by rail to an airbase, and then immediately use air transport. Furthermore, ground units cannot spend any movement points in the phase they make Air Drops (14.10) or Beach Assaults (18.6), or when they move by Shipping (19.0f). Sometimes, however, half MA can be spent by units being transported:

• before when using rail cap (13.3c).
• before and/or after when using Air Transport (14.9d).
• after an ALT landing (18.5h) that requires a roll (but never in cases where no ALT roll is made).

## 4.8 Stacking

Stacking is having more than one unit in a hex. The maximum number of combat units allowed to stack in a hex is 10 RE. Any number of SP or Transport Points can stack together in a hex, but never more than one port, one air base, and one hedgehog. Stacking in Off-Map Holding Boxes is unlimited. Air and naval stacking is described in 14.2a and 18.1b. There is no movement cost for stacking or unstacking. Usually only one side’s units can be in a given hex, but on rare occasions friendly and enemy units are allowed to stack together (see 4.8c). Nationality differences among friendly units has no effect on stacking (unless game-specific rules contain restrictions).

4.8a Overstacking is having more than 10 RE of combat units in a given hex at the end of any segment or phase. There is one exception: stacking is not enforced in the Reinforcement Phase (see 13.6). The owning player is required to reduce any overstacked hexes by eliminating the units of his choice. Units can temporarily overstack during movement except when conducting an overrun, when the overrunning units and any other friendly units in the hex cannot exceed the 10 RE limit.

4.8b Order of Stacking. The player can to a certain degree arrange his stacks in any order that makes sense to him, but there are some requirements related to fog of war and ease of play.

• A) Mode and Out of Supply markers should always be placed on top of all such units in the hex. Except where another such marker comes between them, the markers imply that all units beneath them in the stack are in that mode (or Out of Supply). Some units can never be in a certain mode or status, and those units simply ignore any such marker above them in the stack. For example, SP and Inactive air units under a DG marker are not in Disorganized Mode.
• B) Put Low, Exhausted, or Step Loss markers beneath each and every affected unit.
• C) If a unit with a ZOC is in a hex, it should be the top combat unit (to make ZOCs obvious).
• D) An HQ can be the top combat unit in the hex when no enemy ground units are adjacent (to help the owning player see his logistical net). The enemy player must be told if the hex has a ZOC.
• E) Active planes are put on top of any ground units, but on request the enemy player can also see the top combat unit and any hedgehog. If an Active fighter is in the stack, it should be the top air unit (to make Patrol Zones obvious).
• F) If a hedgehog is present, it should be the top ground unit (to make Hogs obvious). Again, the enemy player can see the top combat unit on request.

4.8c Enemy Stacks. Friendly units can move or retreat into hexes with enemy units in the following cases only. There is no extra MP cost. If an unlisted type of enemy unit is in the hex, friendly units cannot enter.

• A) Attack-Capable units can enter hexes with enemy ships, planes, and non-combat units. Resolve the Specialized Combat per 9.14.
• B) Ships can enter hexes with enemy non-combat units and air units. (They coexist.)
• C) Planes conducting a mission can enter hexes containing all kinds of enemy units
• D) Rail transport and supply paths can be traced through enemy noncombat units, planes, and ships (but cargo cannot detrain in these hexes).

Reminder: Non-combat units are SP, Transport Points, hedgehogs, air bases, and ports. See 3.3.

## 4.9 Fog of War

4.9a A player can never look through an enemy stack. However, the enemy player may always see the hedgehog, top Combat Mode Attack-Capable unit (or top combat unit if none have a ZOC), and top Active plane in any hex. While the player will know if the top unit is Strat Mode, DG, or Out of Supply, he is not entitled to know about internal stocks status or steps lost.

4.9b During combat (both regular and overrun), both players must reveal their Action Rating, AT Effects (9.4e), and total Combat Strength. Neither side is required to show actual units (other than per 4.9a).

4.9c During a barrage, the barraging player should reveal his total Barrage Strength, and be informed of all relevant table shifts or Flak Points.

4.9d During Air Combat, both players should reveal all aircraft present and which are involved in each round.

4.9e Players normally make die rolls in the open, after stating their purpose (such as “this is my Variable Repl roll”). If players agree, they can make certain rolls in secret to increase the fog of war.

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