9.0 Ground Combat
Ground combat is conducted in the Combat Segments of the Combat Phase and Exploitation Phase. Overruns also use the ground combat procedure, but with some differences as outlined in section 8.0. To engage in combat, the attacking units must be adjacent to the hex being attacked. There are some other important considerations:
- Units that are not Attack-Capable (4.4) can never attack.
- HQ (13.1c) and artillery (13.4b) are combat units that do not have a printed Combat Strength.
- Artillery, ships, and planes do not attack enemy ground units using regular combat. They “attack” using Barrage (10.0).
- Hexes that do not contain enemy combat units cannot be attacked. Such hexes are dealt with by using Specialized Combats (9.14).
- Supply dumps, Transport Points, air bases, planes, ships, and ports do not take part in regular combat at all—they do not add any strength, cannot absorb any loss, and (except for Organic Trucks) cannot retreat. Whenever enemy Attack-Capable units enter a hex with these units, a Specialized Combat (9.14) occurs.
Expanded Outline Procedure
- Attacker announces attacking hex(es) and defending hex
- Pay combat supply (SP 12.4 or internal stocks (12.10)
- Attacker first; defender 1/2 strength if not paid
- 2D6 for Surprise + 1D6 for column shift
- Each side chooses AR unit
- Surprise/Combat DRM = (ATK AR) - (DEF AR) – (-1 to DRM for hog 16.0)
- Determine odds and column on combat table
- Roll 2D6 + DRM (from 3) for result
- Execute combat results (9.10)
The attacker announces the attacking hex(es) and the defending hex. Before determining any odds or modifiers, both sides must put their involved combat units into combat supply by expending SP according to the Supply Table (9.5) or by expending internal stocks (12.10). The attacker does this first and if he cannot do so, the attack is cancelled and the defender does not need to expend any supply. If the defender does not expend supply (or has none), the attack continues, but the defender fights at half Combat Strength. Each side selects a unit whose Action Rating (AR) will “lead” the combat. Subtract the defender’s AR from the attacker’s AR and use this difference as a Dice Roll Modifier (DRM) affecting both Surprise determination and the combat roll. Roll two dice for Surprise to check for possible “surprise shifts” to the Combat Table. Determine the base Combat Table odds by comparing the Combat Strengths for each side (making all adjustments for mode, terrain, and supply) as a ratio of Attacker:Defender (rounding fractions per the rounding rule). On the Combat Table, locate the correct odds column on the appropriate terrain category row. If either player has Surprise, adjust the table column accordingly. Roll two dice, modifying the roll by the DRM for Action Rating and any Hedgehog the defender might have. Cross-index the modified roll with the odds column to find the combat result. Apply that result, starting with the unit of each side whose AR was used to determine Surprise.
9.1 Restrictions on Combat
9.1a Only the phasing player’s units can attack in a Combat Segment, and only the moving player’s units can overrun in a Movement Segment.
9.1b Attacking is always voluntary, and just part of a stack can be used if the player wants.
9.1c No unit can divide its strength to attack more than one hex, nor can multiple defending hexes be attacked in one combined combat. Except for stacking (4.8a), there is no limit on the number of units that can engage in an attack from a single hex. There are some important differences between regular combats and overruns (in addition to things covered in 8.0):
- In a Combat Segment, a given unit may attack only once and a given hex can only be attacked once. A hex can be attacked from as many adjacent hexes as the attacking player wants.
- In a Movement Segment, a given unit may perform multiple overruns and there is no limit on how many times a given hex can be attacked via overrun. Only the currently moving stack can overrun, so overruns must come from a single adjacent hex.
9.1d Attack all combat units in a hex as a single, combined defending strength. The defender can never withhold units in a hex from combat.
9.1e Units can be restricted in their ability to attack by mode (units in Strat Mode and unreleased reserves cannot attack), supply status (requisite SP or internal stocks not available), terrain (see 9.1f), and unit type (parenthesized Combat Strengths can only defend). Fuel is not needed to attack or defend.
9.1f A unit can never attack a hex that the movement rules (see especially 6.1d and 6.2c) prohibit it from entering. This applies even if the TEC seems to indicate otherwise. Note also that if a hex can be entered in movement, but only by using a road, a regular combat is allowed, but not an overrun (8.1c).
9.1g Resolve attacks that begin past, or are shifted past, odds shown on the table using the last available column. Also, attacks with odds which begin off the table have column shifts measured from the last available column.
Example: A player makes a 1:12 attack (shame on him). The starting column is the furthest left, or 1:5. Fortunately, Surprise is obtained and a column shift of 6 is rolled. The player shifts six columns from the 1:5 column to 3:1.
9.2 Sequence Summary
- 1) The attacker selects the attacking and defending hexes.
- 2) Both players expend the required SP (see Supply Tables; 12.4). Note if the defender cannot spend supply, or chooses not to do so, he defends at half strength.
- 3) Announce Action Rating values, attacker first then the defender.
- 4) The defender announces terrain choices (9.3b) and players then determine the initial odds.
- 5) Using each side’s Action Rating unit, determine the DRM (9.6).
- 6) Roll two dice to determine any Surprise. Modify the odds column per 9.8.
- 7) Roll two dice and use the DRM in 9.6 to determine the result.
- 8) Execute combat results—attacker first, then the defender—starting with the unit of each side used to determine the Action Rating DRM (9.11c).
- 9) If the defender’s hex is now vacant and the attacker has not retreated as part of an option result, the attacker can advance after combat into the defender’s hex.
Design Note: While learning the system, use this summary for each combat and follow the steps rigorously in order. Even after the system is well known, it is a good idea to use this as a check list to keep things straight. The order of the steps is important!
9.3 Terrain and Combat Table
The Combat Table divides terrain into four general terrain categories: Open, Close, Very Close, and Extremely Close. These categories define the row to be indexed with the odds column. Always use the defender’s hex (or hexsides) to determine the terrain category.
9.3a Units must be able to move into a hex being attacked. See 9.1f.
Important Note: The Terrain Effects on Combat Chart will usually mark with an asterisk a situation where combat might not be possible if hexes are not connected by a road. But 9.1f always applies, whether or not an asterisk is—or is not—on the chart.
9.3b Multiple Terrain Types. Some hexes include more than one terrain symbol (such as woods and mountains). The defender gets to choose which one of these terrain types affects the combat (per 9.4b and 9.4c). The amount of the terrain symbol in the hex does not matter except in the case of cities and villages (where spillover is ignored).
9.3c The effects of terrain on attacking and defending units, and the terrain’s Combat Table category, are found on each game’s Terrain Effects Chart.
9.4 Terrain and Unit Strength
Combat units are divided into three classes (3.2a): Armor, Mech, and Other. The combat strength of units in each class is sometimes modified by terrain. For instance, attacking Armor is usually x2 in Open.
9.4a Apply Terrain Effects to every unit independently. (Some might be halved, some quartered, etc.)
9.4b The defending player gets to choose the one terrain that will modify each attacking stack: either a type in the defender’s hex (such as mountain or woods), or along the hexside (such as river or wadi) the attack crosses. This is a separate decision for each attacking stack. Remember: only the hex or the hexside can be chosen; these modifiers are not cumulative.
9.4c The defending player also gets to choose the one terrain that will modify the defending stack. This choice is not restricted by the selection(s) made in 9.4b. Only hex terrain (not hexside) can be chosen. This choice also determines the terrain category line to be used on the Combat Table.
Example: A city hex is attacked from three adjacent hexes. Each of the three attacking hexes are across minor river hexsides. Two of the attacking hexes are open terrain, the last is a swamp. The defending player believes his city hex will hurt some of the attacking hexes more than the minor river (seeing armor in each), so he selects the city hex as the terrain for two of the attacking hexes. The remaining attacking hex has infantry showing, so the defender selects the river instead. That done, the defending player selects city for his defense (Very Close in this case). The terrain in the attacking hexes does not matter.
9.4d If a Terrain Effect is in brackets ([x2], etc.), that modifier only applies to attacking units. On defense, all such bracketed modifiers are read as x1.
9.4e Anti-Tank (AT) Effects.
A “x2” Terrain Effect for attacking Armor or Mech is sometimes reduced to “x1.5”. Do this when the defender’s hex has the same or a higher level of AT Effects.
- Heavy AT Effects are given to all Yellow-coded units, Red-coded units with Tank symbols (such as a Soviet Tank Brigade), units with an Anti- Tank or Anti-Aircraft symbol, and hedgehogs.
- Light AT Effects are given to all Red-coded units which do not have a Tank symbol (such as recon units and panzergrenadiers).
- No AT Effects are given to all other unit types.
Consider AT reductions to the attack multiplier on an individual unit basis.
Design Note: These Anti-Tank Effects show the reduction in the offensive power of mechanized units when confronted by defenses prepared for their threat. As a side benefit, they bring out the “hard-yet-soft” character of most Red-Mech units. Note the Red-Mech units with a tank symbol (and only that exact symbol) are a special case because they have inherent infantry strength as well as tanks.
Example: An attack has some Panzers (Heavy AT) and some Panzergrenadiers (Light AT). Normally, these units would all be x2 when attacking an open terrain hex. If a defending unit provides Light AT Effects (but none provide Heavy AT), the attacking Panzers would still be x2 but the attacking Panzergrenadiers would be x1.5. If the defending hex had Heavy AT Effects, the attackers would all be x1.5.
9.5 Supply and Combat
Both combat supply and trace supply are needed to fight at full effectiveness. Being marked Out of Supply affects unit strength independently of the combat supply concerns, and all such reductions (if any) are cumulative.
- A) Units cannot attack at all without combat supply.
- B) Units without combat supply can defend at half strength. A player can choose to withhold combat supply (internal or otherwise) if he so desires.
- C) Internal stocks can only be used when regular supply is physically unavailable. (Exception: The SP loaded on an Organic Truck is exempt from this requirement.)
Design Note: This rule prevents players from relying on internal stocks (instead of using SP) in situations where a unit involved is pretty likely to die anyway. That would allow far too much micro- management—in effect getting a “free” combat. Allowing a unit to defend without supply is a safety valve for tight situations where the defending player might otherwise be the target of “supply soak-off” attacks.
9.5a When marked Out of Supply, a unit with combat supply can still attack and defend, but does so at half strength. The same unit with no combat supply cannot attack at all and defends at 1/4 strength. (Modifications are in addition to possible Mode modifications.)
Example: A player attacks with three units (each 1 RE) against a lone defender (1/2 RE). To be considered in combat supply, the attacker must expend 3T and the defender must expend 1T. In this case, the attacker cannot expend the 3T—he has only 1T. He must reduce the attack to one unit, use some internal stocks, or not attack at all. He cuts down the attacking force to one unit. The defender is unable to obtain combat supply and has no internal stocks remaining. So his Combat Strength is halved in the resulting battle.
9.6 Action Rating Modifier
Action Ratings affect combat as Dice Roll Modifiers (DRMs). Each player selects a unit that will determine his side’s Action Rating (AR) in the combat, with the attacker announcing his choice first. Only one unit is chosen per side, and the unit must actively participate in the combat. Calculate the DRM as follows: Attacker’s AR minus Defender’s AR = DRM (this number can be positive or negative). This DRM is used when determining Surprise (9.8) and during Combat Resolution (9.9).
Important Note: Each side’s first step lost, if any, in a combat result must be taken from their Action Rating unit. This does not apply to losses taken in barrages or retreats. In those cases, the owning player can take the loss from any of the involved units. See 9.11c for more detail.
9.6a Mode Considerations. Mode can reduce Action Ratings.
- DG Mode reduces a unit’s Action Rating by 1.
- Strat Mode reduces a unit’s Action Rating to ZERO.
9.7 Odds Determination
To determine the raw combat odds, use the total modified attacking strength and the total modified defending strength. Divide both by the smaller of them and apply the rounding rule (see 4.2) to each result. Express the result as a ratio of Attacker:Defender.
9.7a The Combat Table has a row for each terrain category. Find the odds determined above on the correct row, using the terrain in the defender’s hex. Use the highest column that is less than or equal to the determined rounded odds.
9.7b Odds are limited to those printed on the table. Resolve attacks that fall outside the odds listed on the table on the last available column and begin any shifts from there (see also 9.1g).
After players have identified their Action Rating units and have determined the combat odds, check for Surprise. Roll two dice and add the DRM determined in 9.6. Subtract one from that roll if the defender has any level of hedgehog. Check the modified roll on the Surprise Table to determine which player (if any) gets Surprise. If Surprise occurs, roll one die and shift the final odds column on the Combat Table that number of columns. These shifts are to the right for attacker Surprise and left for defender Surprise. If no Surprise occurs, make no shift.
Note the type of attack (overrun or regular) determines the Surprise Roll needed for each side (per tables).
Play Hint: Roll three dice at once—the two “Surprise” dice and an off-colored “shift” die—to speed play.
Design Note: Surprise mechanics and effects have been the subject of some debate over the years. Some go into a state of shock at the thought that their odds might shift six full columns (infrequent, but it can and does happen). It is instructive to look at the “massive” changes involved in the examples above. In the first, a rather middling three-column shift in the attack’s favor generated the following difference in effect: The attacker’s 3’s get exploit, whereas a 4 AR would have been required before, and the defender gets one additional hard loss and a DG he might have had anyway. In the second example, this time with the maximum six column shift against the attack, the difference is one step loss for the attacker (but the option disappears) and the defender option is lost.
Example: An AR-5 unit tries to overrun an AR-0 unit. This gives a +5 (!) DRM for Surprise. The player rolls an 8, modified to 13, giving attacker Surprise. He then rolls one die and gets a three, which shifts the combat odds three columns to the right. Note that the +5 Action Rating DRM is also applied to the Combat Table roll.
Let’s assume the overrun’s base odds were 4:1 in the open. The column shifts move the odds to the 9:1 column. The player rolls his dice giving a 7 (modified by +5 giving a 12), and the combat result is Ae3, DL2o2DG. Without the column shift, the same battle would have resulted in an Ae4, DL1o2.
For the sake of argument, reverse the above (the 0 attacking the 5 in an overrun). By the way, this is not recommended! The Surprise roll is 10 modified by -5 for the Action Ratings involved, giving a 5. That gives defender Surprise in an overrun. A six is rolled for the number of column shifts. Shift left six columns from the 4:1 in the open column to the 1:4 column. A combat roll of 7, modified to a 2 by the Action Rating differential gives a combat result of AL2. Without Surprise, the result would have been AL1o1, Do1.
9.9 Combat Resolution
After determining odds, Surprise, and any column shifts, roll two dice. Add the Action Rating DRM (9.6) and subtract the full value of any hedgehog in the defender’s hex. Cross index the modified dice roll with the final odds column to find the result. Execute the result according to cases 9.10 to 9.13 below.
Important Note: Hedgehogs have a Surprise DRM that is different from their Combat Table DRM. Surprise rolls are –1 regardless of the hedgehog’s level, while Combat rolls are reduced by the full level of the hedgehog.
9.10 Results and Options
Combat results are generally a mixture of “losses” and “options.” Losses are given as an “L” followed by a number; Options are given as “o” followed by a number. The loss number is a required step loss. The option number presents the affected player with a choice.
9.10a Option results can be taken as any combination of step losses and retreat hexes, provided the total number is fully executed. For instance, a loss of one step combined with a retreat of one hex satisfies an “o2” result.
9.10b The attacker always goes first, executing his combat result before the defender decides what he will do. Take hard losses first and then any options.
9.10c The defender gets to ignore his options if the attacker has retreated or cannot take all of his options. (But the defender can choose to apply his full option when he wants to retreat.) The attacker must always fulfill his option results.
9.10d When a combat result contains both option and exploitation numbers, the attacker must take his entire option as a loss to earn an Exploit marker. If the attacker chooses to retreat, ignore the exploitation result entirely.
- A) Ao1, DL1o2… attacker retreats, defender’s result becomes DL1.
- B) AL1o1, Do1… sole attacker dies by the L1, so defender can ignore his option result.
- C) Ao1e4, DL1o2… attacker kills one step (and gets his exploit result), defender must lose 1 and execute two option results.
- D) AL1, Do1… attacker takes his required step loss, defender must execute his option.
- E) Ao1, DL1o1… attacker must take his option (as loss or retreat), lone defending step is destroyed.
9.11 Step Losses
Most units have just one step, and are placed in the Dead Pile when they take a loss. A multi-step unit is less brittle, and has one step per RE. Record their losses with a Step Loss marker placed under the unit. When the marker equals the unit’s total steps, put it in the Dead Pile. No unit can ever absorb more step losses than it has available steps.
9.11a The owning player determines which unit or units absorb step losses, within the restrictions of 9.11c.
9.11b Results given as “L” followed by a number must be taken as step losses. Ignore inflicted losses beyond the side’s ability to absorb them.
9.11c Step Loss Distribution. During combat, the AR unit (9.6) must lose the first step of their side. In the case of multiple losses, all units must take one loss before any unit takes two.
These distribution rules do not apply to losses taken during a barrage or retreat; instead the player has full control over which units to lose. So the AR unit need not take the first loss and there is no requirement to spread losses out.
Example: A stack suffers 4 step losses, but only possesses 3 steps. The units are all eliminated (and the remaining loss is ignored). In another example, a hex containing a three-step division and a single-step unit suffers two step losses. The division provided the AR for the attack. The division suffers the first step loss; then the one-step unit, being the only other unit in the hex, is destroyed by the second loss.
9.11d Effects of Step Loss. A multi-step unit missing one or more steps halves its Combat Strength when it attacks. If it is missing half or more of its original (printed) steps, its Combat Strength is also halved on defense.
A multi-step division’s current RE size is the unit’s printed RE size minus the steps it has lost.
Example: A 14-4-3 rifle division with three steps loses one step. Place a “one” Step Loss marker under the unit. Its attack strength is now 7 and its defense strength is normal. Later, the division loses another step. Flip the one step loss marker to its “two” side. The unit’s Combat Strength is now halved to 7 in both attack and defense. A further step loss will destroy it.
9.12 Retreats & Advances
Option results that are not taken as step losses must be taken as a retreat (unless exempt due to 9.10c). All units involved must retreat a number of hexes equal to the remaining option result. A retreat must end the full distance (as the crow flies) from the hex where it began.
- A retreat path does not have to be a straight line. It can zig-zag to avoid prohibited terrain, but then must be extended to reach a hex satisfying the ‘full distance’ requirement.
- Eliminate units that must retreat through enemy-occupied hexes or prohibited terrain (sometimes this limits how much of an option can be taken as a retreat).
9.12a The “DG” result on the Combat Table forces all of the defending units to immediately enter DG Mode. Do this before beginning any retreat (important due to 9.12e). A retreat of 2 or more hexes triggers a DG result the instant a combat unit enters the second hex of its retreat.
9.12b Units with a zero MA can change to Move Mode before retreating. Units that are unable to move in any Mode are destroyed if forced to retreat (and cannot advance after combat either).
9.12c Direction. Players retreat their own units. Retreating units can retreat as a stack or split up. A retreat should be generally away from enemy units involved in the combat, but to avoid losses, retreating units are allowed to bend the definition of what is “locally to the rear.”
9.12d Tagalongs. Combat units and Organic Trucks that did not participate in a combat can join a retreat from their hex. Other types of units (ships, aircraft, ports, hedgehogs, non-organic trucks, and dumps) cannot tag along, and must remain in the hex.
9.12e Enemy ZOCs. When a combat unit retreats into a ZOC, it immediately changes to DG Mode, as do any friendly combat units that ‘just happen’ to be in the hex. In addition, if any part of the retreating stack was DG before it entered the enemy ZOC, lose one step from the stack (owning player’s choice from among the retreating DG units). This ZOC effect cannot be “negated” by friendly combat units and is never affected by terrain.
Design Note: The “enemy ZOCs” rule might need some explaining. Retreats are an unplanned form of movement, so even if a unit retreats into a hex “protected” by friendly units, the result is great confusion. This is why both the retreating unit and the units it retreats through become DG.
9.12f Enemy Units. A retreat cannot go through a hex that contained enemy combat units at the start of the combat (so no retreats through a hex vacated by an attacking unit’s loss or option). Handle retreats through non-combat units, aircraft, and ships as you would when moving (per 9.14).
9.12g Advance After Combat. If all of the defenders are destroyed or retreat, attacking units can enter the defender’s hex.
- A) Only those units that paid combat supply costs (including those with a strength of zero) can advance.
- B) If the attackers take their option as a retreat, no advance is possible.
- C) Advance after combat can capture or destroy enemy ships, aircraft, and non-combat units per 9.14.
- D) Advance after combat is required after a successful overrun, but not after regular combat. The owning player gets to choose which of his attacking units advance (if any).
9.13 Exploit Results
Combat results can include a notation “e” and a number, meaning the attacking units with an AR of that number or higher might change to Exploit Mode (see 9.13b). Units must have actually been involved in the attack, so only Attack-Capable units can ever gain an Exploit marker.
9.13a Exploit-marked units can move and fight in the upcoming Exploitation Phase (11.0).
9.13b Ignore exploit results if:
- A) Attacking units are in DG Mode. (Non-DG attackers in the same combat treat exploit results normally.)
- B) It is an overrun (in any phase) or an attack in the Exploitation Phase.
- C) Any two attacking stacks are not mutually adjacent. Thus in order to gain an exploit result, at most two stacks can be attacking and they must be in adjacent hexes
9.14 Specialized Combats
9.14a Zero Strength Units. Combats involving units with a ‘zero’ Combat Strength require some special handling. Attacks against a zero strength begin on the right-most column of the Combat Table (before applying shifts, if any). Attacks with a zero strength must be supplied normally, and begin on the left-most column. If both sides have a zero strength, call it 1:1 and shake your head.
9.14b Supply Dump.
When an enemy Attack-Capable unit enters a hex with a supply dump, consult the Capture Table to determine how many SP are captured by the enemy player (round to the nearest token). The rest is destroyed.
9.14c Transport Points.
When enemy Attack-Capable units enter a hex with Transport Points, they might capture some of the Transport Points and the rest are displaced (sort of like a retreat).
Roll on the “Trucks” column of the Capture Table to check the combined Transport Points with an MA of more than 10, and then roll on the “Wagons” column to check for all with an MA of 10 or less. Results are explained under the table, and affect Transport Points and any loaded SP equally. When there is a mixture of Transport Points (such as regular trucks and organic trucks, or wagons and mules), the owning player decides which are captured and which are displaced.
Enemy units, ZOCs, and prohibited terrain do not affect displacement—just pick up the Transport Points and place them in their new location. A captured Transport Point can move immediately if captured in the Movement Phase (but not if captured in other phases).
Transport Point captures are usually rounded to the nearest full point—only round to token-size trucks if the game’s counter mix includes them. SP capture is always rounded to the nearest token.
Important Note: An Extender never suffers a loss from the Capture Table, nor does it figure into the total number of trucks or wagons present in a hex when calculating the percentage lost. Instead they “collapse” per 9.14d.
Example: In a hex there are three Trucks and 12 SP (three of the SP are loaded on the trucks). During the Movement Phase, a German motorcycle battalion roars into the hex at no additional MP cost. (The Soviet player neglected to garrison this hex; shame, shame.) The German player now consults the Capture Table. First, he rolls for the trucks and supplies thereon using the table’s second column. He rolls a 3 (25%) — that gives 1 Truck Point and 3T to the German war effort. The other 2 Trucks and 9T are displaced by the Soviet player up to ten hexes.) Next the German player rolls for the nine SP on the ground and gets a 5 (50%): another 4 SP and 2T are captured. (The remainder is destroyed.) The motorcycle battalion continues moving with its remaining MP, after which the captured truck is moved.
9.14d Extender Collapse.
When an Attack-Capable unit enters a hex with an Extender, the Extender must collapse. This same procedure is available, at the player’s option, as an alternative to its regular movement (useful when Extenders have lost trace supply).
Displace a collapsed Extender to any hex within its special draw range that is currently in trace supply. Enemy units, ZOCs, and prohibited terrain have no effect on a displacement, and no loss or capture is possible. Flip the Extender to its regular Transport Point side in the new hex.
Important Note: If no “legal” hex exists collapse is not possible. Instead flip the Extender where it is and have it check for capture per 9.14c.
9.14e Hedgehogs. When an Attack-Capable unit enters a hex with an enemy hedgehog, it is captured.
9.14f Air Bases. When enemy Attack-Capable units enter a hex with an air base, it is captured. A captured air base can be used immediately.
Regardless of weather conditions (so even if flight is not allowed), roll for each aircraft in the hex using the Air Base Capture Table. Apply the results as shown (which will be either “reduction” or “no result”). All surviving aircraft then displace to any friendly air base within 2x range and become Inactive (regardless of their status before the roll). They cannot remain in the hex; they must displace and become Inactive. If no friendly air base exists within double range, destroy the planes.
9.14g Naval Units. When an Attack-Capable unit enters a hex with enemy ships (including DUKW operating as Landing Craft), the ships are destroyed.
9.14h Ports. When an Attack-Capable unit enters a hex with an enemy port, it is captured. The port can immediately be used for shipping and as a possible source of trace supply.
Example: Comprehensive Combat
Example: Overrun Attack with a Hipshoot